The Pamunkey Indians were the leading tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy, led by Chief Powhattan, father of Pocahontas, at the time of first contact with English colonists at Jamestown, in 1607. Estimates are that the confederacy then numbered between 14,000-21,000, with the Pamunkey numbering about 1000. Powhatan died in 1618, after which his brother and successor, Opechancanough, attempted in vain to stave off increased English expansion into Powhatan territory. By 1646, as a consequence of war with the colonists and disease, the confederacy was largely destroyed. Many Pamunkey were enslaved to work alongside African slaves and indentured whites. Today, thirty-eight households occupy the oldest Indian reservation in the United States, established by treaty with the English in 1646 and reaffirmed in 1677. Powhatan’s burial mound is still maintained beside the Pamunkey River.
- Chief Kevin Brown
There are approximately 200 tribal members reside at least part time on remaining reservation land of 1200 acres. Though there is no tribe with a greater documented history of contact with Europeans farther back in time than the Pamunkey – it was the Pamunkey who captured John Smith, who extensively recorded his relations with them – the tribe has had to struggle at great cost, over a million dollars, in its twenty-year effort to gain federal recognition. (The tribe is state recognized by Virginia.) A contributing factor to the difficulties with federal requirements, including established genealogies, is the legacy of white supremacist and eugenics advocate Walter Plecker, Virginia’s first registrar of Bureau of Vital Statistics, who from 1924-1946, on the basis of Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act, reclassified, it is believed, thousands of Virginia Indians as “colored,” thus interrupting and obscuring genealogical lines.
- Some Pamunkey design bowls and baskets from gourds.
- Jeanette Bush is a gourd crafter and quilter.
- The Pamunkey River.
- Walter Hill is an electrician.
- A rock band plays at a party at river’s edge on the Pamunkey Reservation.
- Isabelle Brown, mother of Chief Kevin Brown.
- The Pamunkey are known for their blackware pottery.
Photography by Julia DeanFollow Me
33 thoughts on “Picturing the Pamunkey”
hi just found a part of my history that I didn’t know mr lipscomb was my gg grandfather I don’t have much on him because family never talked about the native side anyone out there I would like to learn more I would be greatful in learning
Im 10th grandson of both Powhatan chiefs, queen ann was my aunt, im really sad the pamunkey , don’t expect us as we have documentation for our kin ship along with dna. Chief Brown looks like a brother to me, and im in great need to listen were the great spirit is pulling me. My first g grandma was full blood. Cherokee and my 9th grandma fullblood Powhatan niece to pocahontas, we love you all and wish you all our best, sincerely J Floyd^^^
Im a Floyd. 4th grandson of Gov John Floyd. Chief Powhatan is my 10th pop pop. Me and chief Brown could pass as brothers. My dads moms, mom was full blood Cherokee. Ive tryed paying tribute to the tribe with no reply s. I visit my grandfather s grave mound there often, and was raised as a mixed native in the mountains of wv, we love our native ancestors but they seem to want no part of the original Powhatan s. Chief browns decent queen Anne, was my Aunt. And both Powhatan chiefs were my direct grandfather s. I wish a better understanding of this could be brought forth, so me and mr Brown could become brothers like we appear, many blessings . J Floyd. .^^^
I would call them Multi-Racial Remnants,these descendants rather than an actual Pamunkey Tribe,having a paper trail does not an indian make.
The Pamunkey people remaining today bear no resemblance to the original Pamunkey Tribe ,Pocahantas probably wouldn’t recognize them as such Indians and most probably have little to no native American Dna or culture and certainly no language due to 400 years of interracial and dominant African and European cultures and population and the tribe was small and extinct long ago,what remains is the Political Remnants of a reservation populated by fractional descendants who have maintained the paper trail to connect them to the extinct Pamunkey Tribe and this is an amazing feat in itself having endured over the centuries with land still held as a reservation .A Dna survey would be of interest to go along with this claim? What are the Dna results of the Pamunkey claimants and what are their Haplo groups?? has one ever been done??
If your family line traces back to Rebecca Rolfe (a.k.a.:Matoaka Amonute and Pocahontas) and her father, Powhatan (a.k.a.: Wahunsenacawh), can that be used to become recognized as a member of the Pamunkey and/or Matiponi people? After the American Revolution our our direct lineal Virginia side left the Commonwealth and moved on West. We came back to live in the mid-1960’s and are here to stay. I am now a retired firefighter living in the Shenandoah Valley.
The Pamunkey people remaining today bear no resemblance to the original Pamunkey Tribe ,Pocahantas probably wouldn’t recognize them as such Indians and most probably have little to no native American Dna or culture and certainly no language due to 400 years of interracial and dominant African and European cultures and population and the tribe was small and extinct long ago,what remains is the Political Remnants of a reservation populated by fractional descendants who have maintained the paper trail to connect them to the extinct Pamunkey Tribe and this is an amazing feat in itself having endured over the centuries with land still held as a reservation .A Dna survey would be of interest to go along with this claim?
Maria, have you seen old pics of the pamunkey?
there is a pic of queen Ann with her husband and children. She is of mixed blood and her children look African American and her husband looks European. What the he’ll is wrong with you as they had black Americans in American since beginning of time. Learn your history
The hands holding the pot in the last photo belong to my mother , Elder Mildred Miles Moore, Master Pamunkey Potter. Give credit where credit is due please!
I think its time to retire now and return to the Pamunkey and confederate tribes…
I am looking for the connection to the Pamunkey tribe and my family, names Salmons, Chatham, as stated by my grandmother. We came to this country in 1630, by way of England.
also on my uncles photo taken in the early 1900’s from richmond they wrote “dark” along side his complexion …was it common practice to write dark as well as,colored for those whom had Native ancestors
if anyone has any information on Charles Green with Pamunkey ancestry please email me…he was one of my ancestors and i am trying to connect the dots ..also the surname Michael thanks,
My name is Cody Johnson and my grandma Elsie Collins, was born on the reservation. I had the opportunity to visit the reservation in 2010 and really enjoyed the opportunity to see where part of my family came from. She hid the fact that she was native until my dad was 13 and she returned to the reservation after the death of her sister. My father, aunt, and cousins are all on the scrolls but unfortunately they were closed before my brother and I were added. I just moved from KC, where my grandma still resides, down to Houston Texas.
Cockacoeske mother of John West is my Great 8th grandmother I am a verified descendant of The West family that was born from the Pamunkey Tribe. After my mother kept this secret hidden in our family and my grandfather deceased I am now trying to save my lineage. Is there anyone else out there related to Her or John West??
are you kin to Austin “Overtin” West from Va. ?He was my 3nd Great Grandfather. He was born in Richmond ,Va.
What is the date(s) of John West?I can look on my Ancestry.com to see if that west in my tree.
I am a descendant of cockacoeske to so I guess we are related.
I have been doing genealogical work on the West family line for a little while and it seems like I keep hitting a brick wall when I try to research Major John West (b. 1652, d 1715). I find this odd since Virginia was colonized by the English as a commercial venture, and subsequently there is a lot of documentation about individual travel (ships passenger lists), land grants (Henning’s) and legal proceedings (Virginia Memory project). I am now turning to the proposition that my West ancestors were descended from Capt John West, son of Cockacoeske. The research is made more difficult due to the cultural differences between the two groups regarding names, marriage, etc. I have some documentation that I would gladly send to you if you contact me via e-mail.
I have been told several stories about my family . my grandmother was
pamunkey. in our family we have alot of pride on who we are and were we came from. ny grandmother was the best . cora ann hall(nash) we love and miss you .
My father told me before he died that I am 12.5% Pamunkey indian. His mother’s maiden name is Whiteside. Can anyone help me figure out the lineage of Whiteside and the Pamunkey Tribe?
Am researching John Langston and his place in the Pamunkey Indian nation.Have done research on John Langston who came to Virginia from England.Does anyone have information about the father of John Langston who was part of Lucy Langston’s family?
Does anyone have any info about Cococoeskie, daughter of Opechancanough
I recently read an article regarding Cockacoeske, written by Ethan Schmidt. If you go to jstor.com you can pull up the article: Cockacoeske, Weroansqua of the Pamunkeys, and Indian resistance in 17th century Virginia.(2012)
I am related to Chief Eagle Plume, am looking for any infor I can get. I live in Oregon. some of the famly names Roberts, Osburn Dods , Belcher, Filder.
I am in VA on business and finally made it to Jamestown yesterday. I spoke with one of the guides and she gave me many resources to try.
1. Visit the local pamunkey tribe located near Jamestown.
2. Research chief EP at the Williamsburg regional library
3. Contact the Museum of the American Indian in D.C.
4. If all fails above, then contact Helen Roundtree, an expert in Jamestown Indians.
I plan on going to the library at my next visit. My relative is John Dod, Dods, Dodsen, Dodson. I have always searched Powhatan, but should probably search Pamunkey too. Actually, the Pamunkey were more friendly with John smith than the Powhatan were…it’s more likely that Jane Eagle Plume was a Pamunkey. What research have you done?
Does anybody on the rez know if Chief Opechancanough had a daughter that might have been named “Jane” who supposedly married John Dods/Dodson?
I have heard alot of rumours and would like to put it to all to rest. Also, was Opechancanough ever called “Chief Eagle Plume” by whites? Thank you for any help you can be.
This is Truth.
My 15th Gr. Grandfather is John Dods and Elder Opecancanough Powhatan, he is my 16th Gr. Grandfather.
Jane “Princess Nicketti” is my 15th Gr. Grandmother.
I live in NM.
I have been following your comments through the years on this subject and have been trying to contact you via old email addresses shown on your postings. This is the most information I’ve seen posted on the Chief and Jane. Where did you get this information? I’d love to hear more about John’s wife and father in law. How does the most vicious chief (according to books I’ve read) have a daughter who marries a white man? I hope you read this-I’m very interested on how I can find more info!
Tara, I’ve been following Melissa’s comments too, if “following” means stumbling upon them on an incredible number of genealogy and western history boards. In my opinion, her *data* is inaccurate, to say the least. She changes names and dates around, and has professed herself to be related to just about every historical figure imaginable, including Jesus. My advice is to do your own research with reputable sources.
Do you have native Dna to go with this far fetched claim??? Native American Dna,,it sounds so long ago??
Good luck with that one Maria. native Americans east of the Mississippi claim that its against their customs to give DNA samples. I wonder what century that was decided in. I can hear Sitting Bull now, “No White man will ever have my people’s DNA samples!” as he climbs back into his time machine. 75% of the Virginia Indians that I’ve seen appear to be White, yet just in the last century Walter Plecker identified them as Mulatto people trying to pass as Indian. You would also think that he would have not had so much malice in his heart for people who were “Not actually Black, but Indian”. It almost seems to me that he was more interested in protecting the integrity of the Indians and not wanting BLACKS marrying into the White race. I have managed to run across some unsuspecting folks at 23andme who descend from the exact same families(they also posted their family trees), and got them to share their DNA. Not one of the 7 prominent Va Indian descendants had over 1% and that was just the two samples that DID. The other samples 2 of the 5 showed SubSaharan African and the remaining 3 were 99.7-8% European. That’s just a small drop in the bucket though, but I’d be willing to bet that it won’t get much better if there was widespread testing.
I know that the Plains and Southwestern tribes don’t do it either because of mistrust of the government, but what are they going to steal from them. They are the ones seeking something from the government. I think that it should be a requirement to any come’lately tribes who were not continuously a tribe. All kinds of non-Native people will be benifitting from the tax dollars. and there are quite a few of those in the 5 Civilized who got in through corrupt agents taking bribes.
I have been searching for your Mom and pulled this info up. I sent picture of your sculpture to Mitchell.
We are in Florida now and I hope your Mom will E-Mail me at this address. Didn’t know she went back to reservation. Lost contact when Christmas card came back years ago.
Happy you are doing so well with your art work. Hope to hear from you and Mom.